Sunday, May 24, 2020

Indias Art Culture - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 1950 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/09/14 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? India or Bharat, the fifth largest and the second populated country in the world, is one of the few countries which can boast of an ancient, deep-rooted and diverse culture, which stretches back to 5000 years. In ancient times, India was known as Bharata Varsha, the country of the legendary king of Puranic times called Bharat, and was supposed to be a part of the island continent called Jambu Dvipa. Geologically speaking, India formed part of the Gondwana land and was attached to Antarctica and Australia , before it was liberated from the Antarctica complex about 135 million years ago and started drifting towards the north and finally joining South Asia about 45 million years ago. The Siwalik foothills of the north-western Himalayas served as home to the fossil primate genus known as Ramapithecus, which lived some 14 million years ago. Researches have also found that a species resembling the Australopithecus lived in India some 2 million years ago. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Indias Art Culture" essay for you Create order Some anthropologists believe that the Chotanagpur region witnessed the transformation of Homo Erectus to Homo Sapiens. Extensive archaeological excavations carried out at Mohenjodaro in 1922 brought to light the existence of a highly sophisticated and urbanized culture known as the Harappan Civilization in India dating back to about 2600-2000 B. C. , which dominated the north-western part of the Indian Subcontinent. It is believed that this civilisation covered an area of 1600 km from east to west and 1100 km from north to south, which exceeds the area occupied by contemporary civilisations like the Egyptian and Mesopotamian Civilisations. The next most important phase in the Indian history came centuries later with the advent of Aryans from the northwest of India . The Aryan migration to India was gradual and spread over many centuries. The Aryans developed a remarkable culture, popularly known as Vedic culture, which was markedly different from the Harappan Culture. Endless Diversity There is an endless diversity in India starting from its physical features to Geologic structure, fauna and flora, demographic structure, races, languages, religions, arts and crafts and customs and traditions. India has een variously described as the Mini World, the epitome of the world and an ethnological museum. The diversity in India is unique. Underneath this diversity lies the continuity of Indian civilization and social structure from the very earliest times until the present day. India s culture has been enriched by successive waves of migration, which were absorbed into the Indian way of life. The successive waves of migration i nto India started with the Indo-Greeks (2nd Century B. C. ), followed by the Kushans (First century A. D. ), the incursions from the northwest by Arab, Turkish, Persian and others beginning in the early 8th century A. D. and culminating with the establishment of the Muslim empire by the 13th century, and finally the advent of Europeans the Portuguese, the Dutch, the English, the Danes and the French. These interactions over the years led to introduction of newer elements in India ’s arts, music, literature and customs and traditions, thus enriching our cultural heritage. From the very ancient times India not only absorbed the foreign cultures into its composite fold, but it also managed to spread the rich elements of its own unique culture in different parts of the world. It is historically recorded that the Chola rulers had cultural contacts with countries like Ilamandalam ( Sri Lanka ), Sri Vijaya ( Sumatra ), Chavakam (Java), Kamboja ( Cambodia ) and Kadaram ( Malay Peninsula ). Evidences of these early Indian contacts are still found in the art and architecture of these countries. The Southeast Asian countries formed a stronghold of Indian culture from the early centuries of the Christian era. The various Southeast Asian languages show strong influence of Sanskrit. Many earlier kingdoms of these countries had adopted Hinduism as their religion, whose influence is perceptible even today. India presents a picture of unity in diversity to which history provides no parallel. There is complete harmony in India in each of its cultural elements. Religion and philosophy, which forms the bedrock of any civilisation, are evident in India in the form of all major religions in the world Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Zorastrianism and Judaism. Regional Diversity Each state of India has its own language and set of tribes, festivals, arts and crafts and customs and traditions. While there are the Chenchus tribes in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, Bhils and Gonds in Central India, Dogris, Gujjars and Ladakhis in Jammu and Kashmir and Nagas, Bodos, Mishmis, Gharos and Khasis in the Northeast, there are tribes like the Jarewas, Onges, Andamanis and Sentinelese in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. There are some festivals, which are typical of particular states, cities or towns like the Bonnalu of Andhra Pradesh, Pushkar of Rajasthan, Rajrani of Orissa, Teej of Rajasthan and Bogali Bihu of Assam . Each region is also identified with its typical folk and tribal dance forms, like Puli Vesham of Andhra Pradesh, Keli Gopal of Assam , Chhau of Bihar , Dandia of Gujarat , Bhangra of Punjab and Otthanthulal of Kerala. Similar parallels can also be drawn in the folk drama, theatre and arts and crafts. Development of Arts and Fine Arts There was a continuous evolution of drama, music, dance, painting and folk art forms under the different political rules in India that ultimately led to the development of the definite Indian element in each of these forms. Thus, within the ambience of Indian culture one can identify Indian Music, Indian Dance, Indian Theatre, Indian Literature, Indian Fairs and Festivals and so on. Indian music has a very long and unbroken tradition, which is an accumulated heritage of centuries and traces its roots to Vedic days. Bharatas Natyashastra (4th Century AD) is a great, comprehensive work on the science and technique of Indian drama, dance and music. The advent of Muslim rule in India brought in a changed perspective in the style of Northern Indian music. The traditional Hindu devotional music form of dhruvapad got transformed into the classical dhrupad form of singing under the Muslim rule. The khayal developed as a new form of singing in the 18th century A. D. and became equally popular among Hindus and Muslims. Different ragas began to be introduced from the medieval times. Tansen created many new ragas like Darbari Kanada, Darbari Todi, Miyan Ki Todi, Miya ki Malhar and Miya ki Sarang, which until now, are regarded as the foremost ragas of Northern India . Sultan Hussain Sarki of Jaunpur introduced ragas like Jaunpuri tori and Hussaini Kanada. Amir Khusro is credited with the creation of the Hemant, Prabhat Kali and Hem Behag ragas. A large variety of foreign musical instruments like Harmonium, Sarod, Shehnai, Sitar, Tabla and Violin were introduced in India to supplement the ancient musical instruments like Flute, Nadaswaram, Veena, Gootuvadhyam, Thavil, Mridangam and Plain drum. The six outstanding Sanskrit playwrights of all times, Shudraka, Harsha, Visakhadatta, Bhasa, Kalidasa and Bhavabhuti have made tremendous contributions in the field of dramatics. Kalidasas Shakuntala, King Harshas Ratnavali, Bhasas Swapna-vasavadatta, Bhavabhutis Uttara-rama-charita and Mahavira-charita, Visakhadattas Mudrarakshasa are some of the outstanding Sanskrit plays, which indicate that India had a highly sophisticated theatre tradition in the ancient times when in most other countries it was still in its infancy. Again in the field of literature, the earliest writing can be traced to the Rig Vedic poetry in Sanskrit. The Rigveda consists of 1028 suktas or hymns that are distributed in ten books called mandalas. This is perhaps, the earliest poetry in the world. The two great Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata composed by Valmiki and Vyasa respectively, along with the Puranas, constitute the pillars of the Indian literature. The Manu Smriti (1st century BC) is the best illustrator of the Dharma-sastras or Smritis or the Hindu religious laws. Kalidasa, Bairavi, Sudraka, Vishnu Sharma, Dandin and others composed several literary masterpieces in the ancient times. India s contribution to the world was also immense in the field of astronomy, mathematics and Medicine. Aryabhatta was the first to state that the earth moves round the sun and that the eclipses are caused by the shadow of the earth falling on the moon. Aryabhattas Aryabhatiya, Dasagitika-Sutra and Aryastasata belonging to the 5th century, Varahamihiras Pancha-siddhantika, Brahmaguptas Brahmasphuta-siddhanta and Khanda-khadyaka, Bhaskaracharyas Siddhanta-shiromani and Karana-kutuhala and Bhojas Raja-mriganka are important ancient Indian texts on astronomy. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans, which was consolidated 2500 years ago by Charaka, the Father of Medicine. Another ancient Indian, Sushruta, who is considered as the Father of Surgery, is believed to have conducted complicated surgeries using over 125 different surgical equipments. Usage of anesthesia was also well known in ancient India . Like-wise, detailed references to anatomy physiology, etiology, embryology, digestion, metabolism, genetics and immunity are found in many ancient Indian texts. India s most precious gift to the world is zero (0), which was referred to as Shunya in ancient texts. Algebra, trigonometry and calculus also came from India . One of the best-known achievements of the Indian mathematics is the decimal system. Its first occurrence was on a plate of the year 595 AD where the date 346 AD was written in decimal place-value notation. Aryabhatta, who calculated the value of ? as 3. 1416, is also credited with the creation of Algebraic analysis. Budhayana explained the concept of the Pythagorean Theorem way back in the 6th century. Brahmaguptas Brahma-Sphuta-Siddhanta has two chapters devoted to arithmetic, algebra and geometry. Bhaskaras Lilavati was for many centuries a standard work on arithmetic and mensuration in the East. The worlds first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC, where more than 10,500 students from all around the world studied more than 60 different subjects. The University of Nalanda , established in the 5th century BC, was perhaps the greatest centre of learning in ancient India . Described as The Oxford University of Mahayana Buddhism, it offered wide range of subjects like literature, logic, grammar, medicine, philosophy and astronomy. Sanskrit is the mother of all the European languages. A report in the Forbes magazine of July 1987 described Sanskrit is the most suitable language for the computer software. Vaishali, in modern Bihar , is acknowledged as the World’s First Republic that had a duly elected assembly of representatives and efficient administration as early as 6th century BC. India s culture and heritage is so rich and deep-rooted that it may take several days or even years to understand all its dimensions. From the time immemorial India has fascinated many a world traveller like Fahien, Hiuen Tsang, Ibn Batuta, Alberuni, Ferishta, Vasco da Gama, Marco Polo and several others. Albert Einstein once said: We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made. The great German Indologist Max Muller said: If I were to look over the whole world to find out the country most richly endowed with all the wealth, power and beauty that nature can bestow in some parts a very paradise on earth I should point to India . If I were asked under what sky the human mind has most fully developed the choicest gifts, has most deeply pondered on the greatest problems of life, and has found solution of some of them, which well deserve the attention even of those who have studied Plato and Kant I should point to India. The following quotation of the great American philosopher and writer Will Durant sums up the divine land called India, thus India was the motherland of our race, and Sanskrit the mother of Europes languages; she was the mother of our philosophy; mother, through the Arabs, of much of our mathematics; mother, through the Buddha, of ideals embodied in Christianity; mother, through the village community, of self-government and democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Revolutionary War - 957 Words

â€Å"These are the times that try men’s souls.† Thomas Paine said this during the times leading up to the Revolutionary War. These times include: Navigation Act, French and Indian War, Sugar Act, The stamp Act, Boston Massacre, Townsend Act, The Boston Tea Party, and the Intolerable Acts. All of these events are important in leading to the Revolutionary War. This essay will go into detail about the events leading up to the Revolutionary War. Starting with, the Navigation Act. The Navigation Act was the first event leading up to the Revolutionary War. The Navigation Act is where British parliament passed a series of navigation acts. These navigation acts limited colonial trade by using the system of mercantilism. This also forbade the†¦show more content†¦They opened fire which then killed a French general. This started the French and Indian War. In the French and Indian War the British will defeat the French, Indians, and the Spanish. The French then signed the Treaty of Paris 1763 to end the war. This treaty allowed the colonist to settle west of the Appalachian Moutains. The Native Americans were not happy, so the chief started a rebellion known as Chief Pontiac’s Rebellion. Chief Pontiac was the chief of a group of Native Americans that fought on the French side. When the French signed the Treaty of Paris 1763 it allowed the British colonist to settle west of the Appalachian Moutains into Native American land. They didn’t like this so they kept fighting with the British. The British could not keep up the fighting, so they created many peace treaties until Chief Pontiac and British finally agreed with one. They finally created the Proclamation of 1763 to keep the British off their land. This ended his rebellion. After the war the British didn’t have a lot of money left. Therefore, they created and passed the Sugar act. This act put taxes on sugar, certain wines, coffee, pimiento, cambric, and printed calico. The colonist didn’t want to pay these taxes because they believed that it wasn’t their fault, so they shouldn’t have to pay for it. The thing that made them really mad was the fact that they were being taxed without a voice in

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Shannon Liegh Wynne Free Essays

Shannon Leigh Wynne Advanced Placement United States History Mr. Ed Forte 1 December 2010 To America: Personal Reflections of an Historian by Stephen Ambrose vs. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong by James W. We will write a custom essay sample on Shannon Liegh Wynne or any similar topic only for you Order Now Loewen History can be interpreted in many different ways, and has been, by many different people, who all have different views on politics and economics. Some authors try to change the audience’s opinions, some try to enhance them. Authors have different purposes for writing, different biases and ideas, different research and documentation as well. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong by James W. Loewen and To America: Personal Reflections by an Historian by Stephen Ambrose are perfect examples of two very different books about essentially the same subject. While Loewen is a democrat, and Ambrose is a republican, not only are their philosophies and ideas different, the authors present the ideas in totally different fashions and with different audiences in mind. James W. Loewen and Stephen E. Ambrose have two distinctively different writing styles, political preferences and purposes when writing. Loewen’s Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong is democratic, liberal, and written in textbook style writing. In contrast, Stephen Ambrose’s book, America: Personal Reflections by an Historian, is republican, conservative and written with personal anecdotes and a warm tone, as if a grandfather was telling you the stories. In Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong, Loewen presented a lot of new, surprising, information on well known subjects. These new facts were supposed to sway the reader’s opinion on the subject being presented from what is popular to believe, to what is the â€Å"real† truth. Loewen presented surprising facts about Helen Keller and her political preferences, Christopher Columbus and who actually discovered America, and how some textbooks are have hidden racism and antiracism within the book. America: Personal Reflections by an Historian was written to comment on history and certain events, and the author’s experiences learning about them. Both books focus on certain events, or narrow subjects, but each chapter is a completely new subject. Ambrose interjects his personal experiences and opinions on subjects like Ulysses S. Grant and the Transcontinental Railroad, which the facts are supplied by the author himself, the author’s mentors, and other famous texts and records. Most evidence for Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong is found in documents such as newspaper articles, from both current times and archived materials, as well as books. The information is documented in the back of the book in Notes by the author along with explanations for the use of some phrases and words. Loewen uses many secondary sources, such as textbooks and analyses. Most evidence from America: Personal Reflections by an Historian is also a lot of secondary sources, but many primary sources as well. Ambrose tells many personal anecdotes about the subject and many opinions and stories his mentors and professors shared with him. James Loewen and Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong have a completely different purpose than America: Personal Reflections by an Historian, by Stephen Ambrose, but the two books have overlapping documentation and research. Both America: Personal Reflections by an Historian and Lies my Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong are presented in a somewhat logical manner, but in different ways. James W. Loewen wrote his book by focusing on one subject for an entire chapter and then moving on to the next subject and another chapter. He had the subjects go in chronological order and includes many pictures, charts and graphs to help the reader, and are very well spaced and placed throughout the book. There was no gap in any information in Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong, but there was a plethora of repetition. Loewen almost went in circles, explaining the same thing over, and over, in slightly different ways each time he covered a subject. In contrast, Stephen Ambrose designed America: Personal Reflections by an Historian to flow with the way his mind flowed from thought to thought. The chapters, which also focus on one subject per each chapter, but do not go in chronological order. For instance, one chapter is entitled â€Å"Writing about Men in Action, 1992-2001† and a couple chapters after comes â€Å"Women’s Rights and Immigration†. Also, each chapter is not strictly about a historical subject, some focus on his personal life and experiences that have to do with history. Yet another chapter is titled â€Å"Writing about Nixon† which describes his time while he was researching and writing his biography about President Nixon. Stephen Ambrose wrote as thoughts entered his head, not in a timeline or anything, like a textbook. Ambrose does not use any visual helpers in America: Personal Reflections by an Historian, but his words make up for the absence of pictures because he describes things so colorfully, energetically, and with great care and emotion. These two books are both well organized, but are very different in their organization and layout in general. The points of America: Personal Reflections by an Historian and Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong are almost as different as history reviews can get. Stephen Ambrose’s book was meant to explain historical figures and events and expand on the way Americans already feel on the subject. His object was not to diminish or change the reader’s view on the subject, like James Loewen did, only heighten it. James W. In the chapter in America: Personal Reflections by an Historian about President Ulysses S. Grant, he takes the good image of the war hero, and enhanced it, with unknown stories of his greatness. Loewen’s purpose when writing Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong was to change the reader’s opinion on the subject that he was talking about at the time. For example, most people see Helen Keller as a hero or as very brave, because she overcame her disabilities to help others with the same disability to function in society. Loewen told the readers only a little about her accomplishments about that but spent the rest of the chapter telling all about her political views and career as a socialist and how she publically supported Russia in its new administration as a communist nation. Anyone who reads this book cannot help but feel cheated both my James Loewen for ruining a respectable icon and role model, and at other historians and textbooks for not telling the whole truth. He also tells the readers that Christopher Columbus was a thief and a bad person and that he doesn’t deserve to be nationally celebrated. Both Helen Keller and Christopher Columbus are looked up to by many people, especially children, who are only at school to learn the alphabet and how to share, but Loewen is setting out to ruin all the little pilgrim and Christopher Columbus books for them, and he is okay with that. He wants the public to know the truth, and that is worth everything to him. America: Personal Reflections by an Historian is mainly supporting America’s loved ones, and Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong is shooting them down. Before his death in 2002, Stephen Ambrose was a famous biographer and historian. He was also a professor or taught at the University of New Orleans, Kansas State University, Johns Hopkins University, Rutgers University, U. C. Berkeley, and some European schools. He was mentored by some very famous older historians as well, though he always formed his own opinion on the subject he was being mentored on, even if he did not agree with his mentor. Ambrose was definitely a republican, and interjected his republican views during many parts of America: Personal Reflections by an Historian, and he has also published biographies of Presidents Nixon and Eisenhower, as well as Emory Upton and Henry Halleck. James W. Loewen is very liberal, and it shows in Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. James Loewen has a PHD in sociology from Harvard, co-authored a U. S. history textbook called Mississippi: Conflict and Change , which won the Lillian Smith Award, and has also taught at The Catholic University of America, The University of Vermont, and Tougaloo College. When writing Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong, Loewen studies and stayed at the Smithsonian Institution, where he formed his opinion that no textbook makes history interesting or even documents it correctly. Loewen has written a total eight books, almost all of the same style writing; liberal and decisive. The intended audience for both America: Personal Reflections by an Historian and Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong was a person or student with a general knowledge of history in general and a mainstream idea of many components and events, who is willing to learn and accept new facts about these components and events. The language is that of an educated adult or young adult, so that students and working people alike could understand and relate to the book and author. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong is more of a student’s book, because it focuses on how textbooks get history wrong, but adults are still attracted to the title and style of writing. America: Personal Reflections by an Historian probably brings in more adult readers, because of the style of the writing, more of a story and personal reflections than plain facts. Overall, both books have tremendous value to any reader who is willing to learn, and is patient with the author. At some points in both America: Personal Reflections by an Historian and Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong, the storyline got a little bit slow, which made it difficult to get through. These books could be recommended to high school students, adults and seniors; they cover multiple generations of interest. There was always something new to learn, or a new way to think of or appreciate something with James W. Loewen and Stephen Ambrose. Reading these two books change a lot of thoughts on the main subjects brought up, and the main people analyzed. America: Personal Reflections by an Historian and Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong makes a person wonder if It any leader or idol is a good leader, or role model, or icon, or if they are all really fake. It also makes a person wonder if there really is good and bad in the world, or if everything is grey, not just black and white. How to cite Shannon Liegh Wynne, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Study of Big Energy Samples for Students †

Question: Discuss about the Case Study of Big Energy and XYZ Energy. Answer: The essay provides brief information related to Big Energy which has undergone restructuring. The process of acquisition causes a major change in the behavior of the employees. The restructuring theories help in studying the job satisfaction, motivation towards a particular job. In the given case study both Big Energy and XYZ energy is undergoing a significant change due to acquisition. XYZ Energy is being acquired by Big Energy which is a big name into the private sector industry. In such a situation it is however suggested that the company needs to take proper measures to understand employee behavior (McShane and Von Glinow, 2011). An understanding of organizational behavior is necessary to attain effective results. This is a critical situation for both of the organization to understand the work culture of each other. A thorough understanding of the integration model is necessary for an effective implementation of theories. Study of organizational behavior is important for analyzin g the traits of employees (Adler and Gundersen, 2007). In the given scenario Big Energy is acquiring XYZ energy which is facing serious business issues. The purpose of acquisition is to attain the efficiency of the sick unit and to convert it into a productive unit. This integration model is important to be implemented in order to attain effective results. The adverse effect need to be analyzed effectively in order to achieve sustainability (Bakker and Schaufeli, 2008). The employees in both the companies are facing problems while implementing changes in the routine life. Under such a situation it is necessary to find out one of the most effective policies to coordinate the organization. Acquisition of an organization drastically affects the productivity in an organization. It is difficult for the employees to acquire the capacity in order to attain desired results. In the given situation employees are not ready to absorb the changes. They are finding difficulty to perform their duties. This is putting a wrong impact on the mind of the e mployees in achieving desired results (Pinder, 2014). The old employees are getting badly affected due to change in organizational structure. It is therefore recommended to study behavior of each individual in order to train them to adopt the changing environment (Colquitt, Lepine and Wesson, 2011). Both the business is based on similar concept but the manner of work at each place is different. This is causing difficulty not for the employees of XYZ Energy but Big Energy as well. There is a lot of difference in the opinion of employees. It is necessary to understand the mindset of the employees in order to train them for betterment. Both the organizations are coordinating their efforts by absorbing the positive changes. There is a necessity to focus on both the organization. It is suggested that the changes need to be implemented systematically. This will give them proper time to absorb the changes in daily activities. Every organization has different people and it is essential for everyone to find out the most appropriate procedure to attain desired results. This is however necessary for an organization to recognize the importance of organizational behavior in order to develop an effective learning (Nelson and Cooper, 2007). The behavior of employees at each organization is different and it is necessary to focus on utilizing the efforts of each and every team member. It is necessary to focus on both the positive and negative aspects in the organization. This will help the managers to understand the behavior of the employees. The employees of XYZ Energy are already facing serious issues due to a change in the work pattern. The work environment is different for the employees of XYZ Energy. Under such a condition it is advised that the management need to give a proper consideration to every individual in order to understand their condition (Wright and Nishii, 2007). Big Energy wants to attain efficiency it has to understand the behavior of each employee and work according to the necessity. This will help in delivering the effective results within the given time period. It is generally seen that employees experience significant psychological change due to restructuring of the organization. It is advised that the organization need to improve the behavior, belief and attitude of people in both the organization. It is essential to focus on improving the leadership skills in an organization. This will help in coordinating the efforts in coming time. THE Management needs to analyze the behavior of each and every individual before implementation of the plan. Understanding the behavior of each and every employee in the organization will help in providing sustainable opportunities. This helps in delegating the most appropriate duty to the employee according to his caliber(Miner,2015). There is a necessity to put 100 percent efforts in order to attain hig h efficiency. The purpose of the organization is to concentrate on improving the behavior of every individual in order to attain desired results. The organization behavior is one of the most important tools used to understand the behavior of each and every individual at work. Company cannot afford to lose its market stature caused due to the whole process (Robbins and Judge,2012). Under such a circumstance it is advised to figure out the most appropriate structure in order to implement the plan. Coordinating the employees of both the organization is difficult to be managed. It is therefore necessary to integrate the efforts of each and every individual in the organization to improve the productivity. Improved results can only be derived if the capacity of both the organization is used efficiently. In a diversified business scenario it is necessary to eradicate the sources that can hamper production(Eder and Eisenberger,2008). It is recommended that the company must integrate the efforts of every employee working in the organization by understanding their mental status. A proper understanding of the individual behavior is necessary to delegate role and responsibilities. A manager can only delegate the responsibilities efficiently if he has proper awareness about the individual caliber. One can only be satisfied with the job role if he/she is aware about the individual behavior. It is necessary to study the nature of every individual working in the organization. It is clearly visible that the study of employee in an organization helps in increasing productivity. This provides an insight regarding job satisfaction of the employees. A study shows that unsatisfied employee reduces the overall productivity of an organization (DuBrin, 2013). It is the duty of the manager to look into the matter whether the employees are satisfied with the job or not. In case if the employees are facing any issue in the organizat ion it need to be directed effectively. It is the duty of the manager to take proper measures to understand the attitude of the employees in an organization. This not only helps in attaining sustainable results but also improves overall productivity. Organizational theories help in understanding the behavior of employees at workplace. It is essential that the behavior and values of employees at workplace need to be analyzed effectively. If the employees are wholly satisfied they will perform effectively at the workplace. Employees will give effective result in case they are performing their duties efficiently. In case if they are not performing their duties it will adversely affect the organization. XYZ Energy employees are currently facing difficulty in assimilating the role and responsibilities given to them. It is necessary to implement the effective organizational theories in order to attain desired results. It is very difficult for the employer to establish effective relationship with the employee in order to attain desired results. It is the responsibility of both the employer and the employee. The employer needs to check whether the employee is adhering upon the duties that are given to them(Jones,2010). An employer need to keep a detailed structure of the employees behavior towards the work in order to mitigate the risk involved in accepting the cultural differences. It is thereby necessary to set long term sustainable goals in order to achieve desired results(Hogg and Terry,2014). Employees loyalty need to be tested so that the company can achieve effective results. The desired results can only be achieved if the employer focuses on developing relationship. It is necessary to understand the behavior of every individual in order to manage the cultural differences. An effective method need to be adopted to absorb the differences occurring in the organization. Under such a situation the management should rather introduce activities that help in coordinating the efforts. The organization either have to figure out an activity that help in organizing the company in an effective manner. The objectives can only be achieved if the employer focuses all the sources on enhancing the caliber of employee. This will help in improving the qualitative and quantitative productivity in an organization (Slocum and Hellriegel, 2009). Employees need to be motivated towards the positive direction by the employer in order to implement positive changes. Employee productivity can only be enhanc ed in case if the employee focuses on developing efficient work environment. The employees need to adopt significant changes in order to promote efficient productivity. The change in the work environment can negatively affect the organization. Under such a situation it is suggested that Big Energy needs to focus on developing an effective work environment that will help in balancing the organization at an initial stage. The main purpose of acquisition is to synthesize the productivity of both the organization in order to achieve appropriate results. The most important part in such a situation is played by the manager as he organizes the efforts of all the employees in the organization. The absorption process has led to temporary imbalance in the organization. It is necessary to motivate the employees in a positive manner so that they can implement the changes in their daily routine (March, 2013). Organizational behavior helps in understanding the difference in the opinion of people. This helps in managing the organization to achieve common goal. It is necessary to conduct the personality test to understand the cultural difference. The difference in the work culture affects the overall productivity in an organization. In the given situation both the organizations are following a different culture at workplace that has caused variance in adopting the work environment. Under such a situation a study of organizational behavior accompanied with the individual behavior is necessary to adopt the desired results. There should be an effective model in order to support the organization to generate results in accordance with the necessity. Efforts of employees in both the organization need to be given equal care. It is certain that the employees will face difficulty in the initial stage but it is also necessary to figure out proper techniques to reduce the overall impact of the procedure. It is not a day process, and the whole procedure will take time in order to attain desired results. Under such situation the organization should give effective tools to attain desired results. This will not only improve the productivity but will also help in attaining desired set of results. XYZ Energy and Big Energy are facing changes in the overall work pattern. It is therefore difficult for them to utilize the efforts accordingly (Barling, Clegg and Cooper,2008). Changes are an important part in a life of an organization. It is important to notice that the organization can only improve if they focus on enhancing the productivity by focusing on employees. The efforts of the employees need to be recognized in order to sort out the difference in between them. The employees should adopt the changes in a short time which will help in achieving desired results. This will help in increasing the overall efficacy in an organization. The morale of the employees needs to be integrated in a positive manner as this will help in implementation of the results in a proper manner. It is recommended that Big Energy need to take proper measures to meet the desired changes occurring in the organization. The productivity can only be attained if employee is working efficiently. References Adler, N.J. and Gundersen, A., 2007.International dimensions of organizational behavior. Cengage Learning. Adler, N.J. and Gundersen, A., 2007.International dimensions of organizational behavior. Cengage Learning. Bakker, A.B. and Schaufeli, W.B., 2008. Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations.Journal of Organizational Behavior,29(2), pp.147-154. Barling, J., Clegg, S.R. and Cooper, C.L. eds., 2008.The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Behavior: Volume Two: Macro Approaches(Vol. 2). Sage. Colquitt, J., Lepine, J.A. and Wesson, M.J., 2011.Organizational behavior: Improving performance and commitment in the workplace. McGraw-Hill Irwin. DuBrin, A.J., 2013.Fundamentals of organizational behavior: An applied perspective. Elsevier. Eder, P. and Eisenberger, R., 2008. Perceived organizational support: Reducing the negative influence of coworker withdrawal behavior.Journal of Management,34(1), pp.55-68. Hogg, M.A. and Terry, D.J. eds., 2014.Social identity processes in organizational contexts. Psychology Press. Jones, G.R., 2010. Organizational theory, design, and change. March, J.G., 2013.Handbook of Organizations (RLE: Organizations)(Vol. 20). Routledge. McShane, S. and Von Glinow, M., 2011.M: Organizational behavior. Irwin/McGraw-Hill. Miner, J.B., 2015.Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge. Nelson, D. and Cooper, C.L. eds., 2007.Positive organizational behavior. Sage. Pinder, C.C., 2014.Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press. Robbins, S.P. and Judge, T., 2012.Essentials of organizational behavior. Essex: Pearson. Slocum, J.W. and Hellriegel, D., 2009.Principles of organizational behavior. South-Western Cengage Learning. Wright, P.M. and Nishii, L.H., 2007. Strategic HRM and organizational behavior: Integrating multiple levels of analysis.CAHRS Working Paper Series, p.468.

Sunday, March 29, 2020

Heres the LA Opportunity for Improvement Policy Essays - Webmail

Here's the LA Opportunity for Improvement Policy : T his policy applies to: quizzes, tests , discussions, and portfolio assignments. Quick checks are not eligible for OFI. You can rewrite your writing assignments up to 3 times for more credit. Send your revisions in a Word document and attached to a WebMail. If you would like to recover points fora previous quiz or test or discussion, you will need to follow these guidelines to get the credit back. You will also have 3 attempts for each assignment. You cansubmit OFI for as many quizzes, tests, or discussions as you like. When you are done with your OFI, send it to me as an attachment to a Webmail. For each question that you got wrong, you will need to answer two questions listed below: 1. What the correct answer is, 2. Why the answer you selected was incorrect. When writing your answers please follow all spelling and grammar rules and use complete sentences.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Key Concepts in Conversation Analysis

Key Concepts in Conversation Analysis Though a man succeeds, he should not (as is frequently the case) engross the whole talk to himself; for that destroys the very essence of conversation, which is talking together .(William Cowper, On Conversation, 1756) In recent years, the related fields of discourse analysis and conversation analysis have deepened our understanding of the ways in which language is used in everyday life. Research in these fields has also widened the focus of other disciplines, including rhetoric and composition studies. To acquaint you with these fresh approaches to language study, weve put together a list of 15 key concepts related to the ways we talk. All of them are explained and illustrated in our Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms, where youll find a name for . . . the assumption that participants in a conversation normally attempt to be informative, truthful, relevant, and clear: cooperative principlethe manner in which an orderly conversation normally takes place: turn-takinga type of turn-taking in which the second utterance (for example, Yes, please) depends on the first (Would you like some coffee?): adjacency paira noise, gesture, word, or expression used by a listener to indicate that he or she is paying attention to a speaker: back-channel signala face-to-face interaction in which one speaker talks at the same time as another speaker to show an interest in the conversation: cooperative overlapspeech that repeats, in whole or in part, what has just been said by another speaker: echo utterancea speech act that expresses concern for others and minimizes threats to self-esteem: politeness strategiesthe conversational convention of casting an imperative statement in question or declarative form (such as Would you pass me the potatoes?) to co mmunicate a request without causing offense: whimperative a particle (such as oh, well, you know, and I mean) thats used in conversation to make speech more coherent but that generally adds little meaning: discourse markera filler word (such as um) or a cue phrase (lets see) used to mark a hesitation in speech: editing termthe process by which a speaker recognizes a speech error and repeats what has been said with some sort of correction: repairthe interactive process by which speakers and listeners work together to ensure that messages are understood as intended: conversational groundingmeaning thats implied by a speaker but not explicitly expressed: conversational implicaturethe small talk that often passes for conversation at social gatherings: phatic communicationa style of public discourse that simulates intimacy by adopting features of informal, conversational language: conversationalization Youll find examples and explanations of these and over 1,500 other language-related expressions in our ever-expanding Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms. Classic Essays on Conversation While conversation has only recently become an object of academic study, our conversational habits and quirks have long been of interest to essayists. (Not surprising if we accept the notion that the essay itself may be regarded as a conversation between writer and reader.) To take part in this ongoing conversation about conversation, follow the links to these eight classic essays. The Musical Instruments of Conversation, by Joseph Addison (1710) I must not here omit the bagpipe species, that will entertain you from morning to night with the repetition of a few notes which are played over and over, with the perpetual humming of a drone running underneath them. These are your dull, heavy, tedious, story-tellers, the load and burden of conversations. Of Conversation: An Apology, by H.G. Wells (1901) These conversationalists say the most shallow and needless of things, impart aimless information, simulate interest they do not feel, and generally impugn their claim to be considered reasonable creatures. . . . This pitiful necessity we are under, upon social occasions, to say something- however inconsequent- is, I am assured, the very degradation of speech. Hints Toward an Essay on Conversation, by Jonathan Swift (1713) This degeneracy of conversation, with the pernicious consequences thereof upon our humours and dispositions, hath been owing, among other causes, to the custom arisen, for sometime past, of excluding women from any share in our society, further than in parties at play, or dancing, or in the pursuit of an amour. Conversation, by Samuel Johnson (1752) No style of conversation is more extensively acceptable than the narrative. He who has stored his memory with slight anecdotes, private incidents, and personal peculiarities, seldom fails to find his audience favourable. On Conversation, by William Cowper (1756) We should try to keep up conversation like a ball bandied to and fro from one to the other, rather than seize it all to ourselves, and drive it before us like a football. Childs Talk, by Robert Lynd (1922) Ones ordinary conversation seems so far beneath the level of a small child. To say to it, What wonderful weather weve been having! would seem an outrage. The child would merely stare. Talking About Our Troubles, by Mark Rutherford (1901) [A]s a rule, we should be very careful for our own sake not to speak much about what distresses us. Expression is apt to carry with it exaggeration, and this exaggerated form becomes henceforth that under which we represent our miseries to ourselves, so that they are thereby increased. Disintroductions by Ambrose Bierce (1902) [W]hat I am affirming is the horror of the characteristic American custom of promiscuous, unsought and unauthorized introductions. You incautiously meet your friend Smith in the street; if you had been prudent you would have remained indoors. Your helplessness makes you desperate and you plunge into conversation with him, knowing entirely well the disaster that is in cold storage for you. These essays on conversation can be found in our large collection of Classic British and American Essays and Speeches.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Germany and the germans class Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Germany and the germans class - Essay Example This is because it provides housing for the people who were believed and listed to have perished during the holocaust (Quigley, 3). 3. The most appropriate title for the memorial would be â€Å"In commemoration of all the Jews who perished in Europe† since it is more inclusive. It is because the current title does not entirely represent the whole diversity of the way Jews perished during the holocaust. Besides the executions, other Jews also perished as a result of diseases and accidents. 4. In Washington, there is a holocaust museum but there lacks a memorial for the victims of the slavery and genocide because the government is not willing to put it up. The main reason is because the black Americans who were majorly involved are considered to be inferior as a result of racial segregation. 5. Emily Reed underwent torture for more than twelve years but she survived at the Dachau concentration camp. She is the symbol of the relief that most Jews experienced after they were released from the concentration camps (Young